Start no dig, soil types, weeds, composts to use

Fewer weeds in no dig

Whenever soil is dug, loosened or turned over, it recovers from the disruption by re-covering with weed growth – both from roots of perennials and seeds of annuals.  By contrast when left uncultivated it has less need to re-cover and therefore grows less weeds, as shown by a look at Homeacres at any time of year.

There are always a few new weeds,  from seeds blowing in or brought in with composts, and they need removing by hand when small, or hoeing off as tiny seedlings. It is a little and often approach. Vegetable growing is bountiful and easier when weeding is just a small issue, small but still important.

Mulching to clear soil of weeds in polytunnels is the same story, see my early posts of 2013 for how I mulched a tunnel of weeds, starting here and scroll down halfway. See First Tunnels, and  Ferryman Polytunnels for some ideas of structures and prices, and my article on this site.

Soil condition, firm is good!

Soil compaction is thankfully rare. Often soil feels firm or even hard, especially when dry, and this is fine for plants to grow in. Within the firmness is a tight structure of fine air channels and root passageways, as well as good drainage capacity. Even in clay, and I write this from experience, you need to trust!

Plants root better in dense, firm soil than in one whose structure is loose and offers less support to the plants above, and loses more moisture to evaporation. No dig works well on clay soil, see below.

Clearing weeds

The first step depends on how many and which weeds you have, especially perennials, and how much organic matter you can source – see this link for a depth calculator of compost.  The mulch(es) you lay are to clean soil of weeds by a smothering, light-deprivation effect. Mulches of organic matter also feed soil and its inhabitants.

There is no need to dig before starting, or to incorporate manure at depth. Placing organic matter on top is the best way to bring soil alive because that is how soil organisms work, searching for and eating organic matter at the surface, then digesting and excreting in the soil, building a permanent structure in so doing. Incidentally, worms love working under black polythene, if you are using that initially.

In damp climates such as the UK, I recommend not using mulches of undecomposed organic matter, such as straw, which allow slugs to hide by day and eat your plants by night. Where slugs are potentially prevalent, compost is the mulch of choice because it does not harbour slugs. Composted beds look ‘bare’ when not growing vegetables, but the compost mulch is protecting soil below.

The time needed between mulching and sowing can be instant if you have enough compost, say a 6in (15cm) layer (option 2 below), otherwise within 6-12 months as in option 1, depending on the current perennial-weed situation, and whether the timing works for vegetables such as squash and potatoes.

Some weeds that need digging out initially

Docks and woody plants such as brambles are best removed with a sharp spade, before mulching. Otherwise they push mulches up and reach light before they die. Use a sharp spade to cut around bramble clumps, removing the main crown but leaving all small roots in the soil. For docks, remove the top 6in (15cm) and then they do not regrow; I put these roots on my compost heap and they break down nicely.

Wooden sides?

Its often assumed that growing in beds means you need permanent sides, but this is untrue, though they are sometimes useful, for example in the first 6-12 months of option 2. Temporary sides (such as old fence posts) help to keep compost-filled beds in shape, for the first few months, as in the first photo of option 2 below, February 2013, I then lifted off the unfixed wooden sides in early autumn of that year, once the beds’ compost had settled and path weeds were dead – this had needed a further laying of cardboard in May, and again in July for a few places with couch grass.

It’s quicker and cheaper to create open-sided beds, and they offer less hiding places for slugs and woodlice. However, you must have weed-free paths for this to work and absolutely no grass, which otherwise invades beds with no sides. This is why I used cardboard on paths in the first few months at Homeacres, to kill buttercups, dandelion and some couch grass. After six months or so, once those weeds had died from lack of light and the cardboard had mostly decomposed in situ, I spread some organic matter as surface mulch: half-rotted leaves, old straw, green waste compost and decomposing woody material are suitable. Then I treat paths like the beds, they receive a little compost from birds kicking it off the beds (looking for worms), and I weed where necessary, to keep them immaculate.


OPTION 1 Some organic matter and polythene mulches

See the video for more on this

When significant perennial weed roots are present and you are using say 1-2in (3-5cm) compost, there are still possibilities for growing veg in the first summer. Occasionally, slugs may make this tricky.

1) Initial soil feeding and  mulching of weedy  plots

No Dig Growing Basics
Experimenting with different surface mulches on soil with couch grass, buttercups and cow parsley.

Any organic matter can be applied on top, for soil food and to increase the light deprivation of weeds below. Animal manures partly decomposed, composts of any kind, a small amount say no more than 25% of leaves and grass clippings, are all good at this stage for feeding worms which get busy under dark mulches. Soil is improving at the same time as weeds are dying off. The surface mulch of polythene, cardboard or paper is applied on top of the organic matter.

Polythene can be 600 guage or thicker plastic of any colour (cheapest option), woven polypropylene membrane (best not cut) or landscape fabric which is cheap, light and easy to cut. However fabric lets 30% light through so best lay cardboard first, then fabric on top.

This option is particularly worthwhile if you are clearing vigorous, perennial weeds in summer or autumn, to have ground clean for the following spring. Or if you want to grow say potatoes and/or winter squash – see the photos below from Homeacres in 2016, taking a harvest of Crown Prince winter squash from ground that in April was 100% weeds including some couch grass (Elymus repens), grass and some bindweed too.

2) Next step depends on compost depth and weeds

Before removing polythene or membrane, allow enough time for weed roots to be exhausted under whatever mulch has been used. Annuals need two to three months, many perennials take from six months or sometimes longer, for their roots to be exhausted by trying to grow in darkness. If you peel back a mulch and still find white stems of weeds, their roots are still alive, as in the last photo of the four above. At least in this case, there was not a lot of bindweed and we used a trowel to remove those shoots, to further weaken the parent roots below.

At Homeacres, on pasture full of perennial weeds, I remove polythene mulches after one growing season, say February to October at most.

Carpet applied to weedy pasture three months earlier, with 1in (3cm) old horse manure. Bindweed Convolvulus arvensis is still growing white stems and leaves. White because they cannot photosynthesise, therefore the parent root is weakening all the time.
Carpet applied to weedy pasture three months earlier, with 1in (3cm) old horse manure. Bindweed Convolvulus arvensis is still growing white stems and leaves. White because they cannot photosynthesise, therefore the parent root is weakening all the time.

3) Normal Growing

After polythene/cardboard/membranes have done their job, you have a clean surface to sow and grow, which is the dark surface layer of compost you applied earlier, or apply afterwards. Seeds germinate and plants grow initially in the surface compost, then root into undisturbed soil below, which is firm but not compacted.  Firm is good!

Incidentally,  in dry weather soil becomes hard: this is normal and don’t worry, it softens with rain or watering.

Some perennial weed roots may still be sending up new leaves, as happened with the bindweed after my carpet mulch. In this case you need to keep removing the regrowth, as often as possible, to weaken the parent root even more. By year three, even bindweed is rare and easily manageable.

OPTION 2 using 4-6in (10-15cm) compost to create beds

When you have enough compost to create beds with up to six inches (15cm) on top of  weeds, this is sufficient to prevent re-growth of weeds.
An exception is if there are extreme amounts of bindweed, marestail and dense couch grass – in which case, use option 1 above.

6in/15cm compost well trodden, or less with thick cardboard underneath, is  enough to kill annual grasses and weeds, and to weaken if not kill perennial weeds such as buttercup, dandelion, and smaller amounts of couch grass. Use a trowel to remove any regrowth of perennial weeds, until parent roots die from lack of photosynthesis-food from new leaves.

  • Cardboard for paths only, temporary wooden sides: In the photos of Homeacres 2013, I used a wheelbarrow to fill beds with 6in/15cm depth of compost. This was two year old cow and horse manure, homemade compost, and some green waste compost for the top inch or two. Any fine compost is good for the surface layer, your own if it has reached that stage, or old cow manure, mushroom compost or store-bought compost.
  • For the large area to mulch in 2013, I had only enough cardboard for the paths and to go under the temporary sides. If I had been able to source it, cardboard laid over the bed weeds as well, before compost, would have slowed regrowth of buttercups, thistles etc. A few pushed through the compost and I needed to pull them in spring, until the parent roots expired.
  • The wooden “sides” you see above are fence posts laid on the ground, to hold compost in place while it settles. Before the end of that first year, I had removed most of them, as they are not needed any more and were giving habitat to slugs.

  • In the image of a new bed below, half the bed had cardboard under the compost, half did not and in this case it made little difference to weed regrowth, because the perennial weeds were not too vigorous, having been regularly mown for three years previously. If there are vigorous perennial weeds, a cardboard layer is worthwhile – thick cardboard is best, or two layers of thin cardboard. We filled this bed with half animal manure (old) and half my own compost, no green waste.
Filling a new bed on grass, one half with cardboard: the six inches of organic matter in this bed was enough to kill grass, dandelions and buttercups
Filling a new bed on grass, one half with cardboard: the six inches of organic matter in this bed was enough to kill grass, dandelions and buttercups

For an approach like this and to grow potatoes at the same time, see Naomi Schillinger’s blog of summer 2012.

Vegetables are hungry plants and require a soil that is well structured and full of life. First year dressings of organic matter may seem a lot but will repay the effort for years to come. Until the advent of chemical fertilisers, larger amounts of compost and manure were always used for vegetable growing. Since 1945 especially, more emphasis has been placed on chemical nutrients from synthetic or concentrated sources, but these fertilisers cannot provide soils with food for all its myriad of inhabitants who are so necessary in growing healthy plants. And some of their nutrients leach away in rainfall, which is both a waste and a pollution.

These parsnips were sown in well decomposed manure on top of heavy clay soil
These parsnips were sown in well decomposed manure on top of heavy clay soil

No dig clay soil no problem

At Lower Farm my soil was clay, and I found that all vegetables rooted into it. In France I gardened on dense white clay, with lovely harvests.

Clay soil is great for no dig: worms and other soil life improve its structure, you save so much time, and there is good nutrient + moisture retention.

To clarify, my clay soil at Lower Farm was in 2010 growing vegetables as in the middle picture and parsnips as in the right hand photo of the gallery below. No dig, no loosening or forking, just soil organisms doing the work and they are fed with a compost mulch. Parsnip and other seeds are sown into this compost.

At Homeacres my soil is dense silt and everything roots into that too. In my first garden 35 years ago, soil was Cotswold brash, very stony, and no dig was successful there as well.

Undisturbed soil develops and maintains a honeycomb structure of small air passages, especially when it is fed annually with an inch or so of compost on top. This compost can be animal manure that has been stacked for six months or more, your own compost, municipal or mushroom compost, leaf mould etc

  • Wood chips A variation  is to apply 6-12in (15-30cm) of wood chips, and/or bark and/or shavings, to kill off weeds. If you have access to these materials for free, its worth considering.
    But the downside is a wait of up to two years before the lower layers have turned to compost, by which time you can plant (easier than sow) into that lower layer, with the surface wood continuing as weed-suppressing mulch and eventual soil food. Lots of wood mulch encourages woodlice and they nibble leaves such as spinach and cucumber.


No dig ongoing

The surface layer

Sowing small seeds into large lumps of compost and manure is unlikely to succeed, so keep the most crumbly and finest  organic matter for your surface layer of mulch.

Likewise, an excellent time to spread compost is in autumn, as soon as the previous crops finish. Then there is time for frost to break up any lumps and for worms to start taking it down, leaving a fair tilth by spring. It also helps, when the surface organic matter is lumpy, if you knock it around in February or March with a fork, just on the surface, to smooth out the lumpy bits.

Whenever you are spreading an inch or two of compost as surface mulch, break up any larger lumps, aim for golf-ball size as the largest, then weather can do the rest. I find that carrot and parsnip seeds germinate readily when sown into reasonably fine compost, then make straight roots down into the undisturbed soil below.

Maintaining abundant growth and few weeds

For vegetables, including for two crops in one year, average amounts of compost used annually are one to two inches on beds. Using less compost is possible but creates more work proportionate to results, through weeds growing, less healthy growth and smaller harvests.

For paths, you can spread an inch or two of wood shavings or sawdust, or leaves, straw, bark or less rotted manure. When growing without sides, the crops in beds root happily into weed-free, mulched paths in search of food and moisture. A caveat to this is areas with slugs, where path mulches should be more decomposed, to afford less habitat for molluscs.

Spreading compost in May after clearing winter cauliflower
Spreading compost in May after clearing winter cauliflower

Organic matter can be spread at any time of year.
The most practical season is autumn, when soil is moist and still warm, so that worms can access it, and when harvests are finishing and soil is cleared of crop remains. Also, some ground becomes clear in spring after winter leeks, cabbages and so forth, and can be composted then if there is no remaining organic matter on the surface. Or you can spread compost in winter between leeks and broccoli.

I find that one composting a year is sufficient for two crops, once soil is in good heart. You can tell this by how healthy and vibrant your vegetables are looking.

Where to find the organic matter you need? Compost is becoming more available, and often cheaper, thanks to recycling of green waste, and there are surplus quantities of animal manure to be found in many localities, in addition to any compost you can make.

Animal manures/composts

All are suitable, at least a year old, preferably dark in colour, with lumps that can be broken up by knocking with a fork before spreading. Old animal ‘manure’ is ‘compost’ and these two words cause confusion unless one is precise. Fresh manure is not compost, but old manure is. All organic materials such as leaves can turn into compost, when stacked for sufficient time in a heap with some air. Tree leaves take up to two years to compost, or one year when added to green/nitrogenous materials such as grass. They also decompose more quickly if chopped by a rotary lawnmower.

“Green waste compost” is made in facilities using shredders and turning-machinery, often sold after two months of composting, perhaps less. It reaches a high temperature which gives the black colour, almost charcoal. It’s often delivered hot and if so is best left in a heap, if you have time and space, to finish decomposing. I reckon to order and have it delivered in July, for spreading in November. When it arrives the heap temperature is often 60C/140F, and sometimes the heap needs water as it has dried out by steaming. There are no weed seeds, and nutrient status is low but satisfactory.

Mushroom compost, used for growing mushrooms in undercover benches, has more nutrients than green waste compost and again may be delivered “unripe”, though it can be used at this stage. I prefer to leave it 3-4 months to finish curing. Ingredients are mostly straw and some horse manure. There used to be chalk as well but some mushroom compost does not have this now, my last batch was pH 6.8. Ask your supplier if worried, but I suggest not to worry about the pH because I have never found it to cause problems, even when I used mushroom compost of pH 9.5 on soil of pH 7.8. Don’t believe everything you read about “pH has to be ‘correct’ for different crops”.

Chicken manure is unusual because of it’s high amount of nitrogen. In small amounts, say you have a few chickens, I suggest adding it to the compost heap where it helps other wastes to break down. To use it as mulch, there must have been plenty of bedding such as straw, and all of it needs to have decomposed for 6-8 months in an aerobic heap. Fresh or ‘neat’ chicken droppings are more akin to nitrogen fertiliser than to compost, and best used sparingly. Otherwise growth may be excessively leafy with more pests such as aphids.

Best avoid manures (mainly horse) that have a lot of wood shavings, because they take years to decompose. However a lovely aspect of no dig is that woody mulches on the surface do not cause nitrogen robbery. Instead, problems with wood on beds are (a) the potential for slug habitat, and (b) if you spread compost a year later, the wood is “incorporated”, unless it has decomposed. So small pieces of green wood prunings of deciduous trees are good to use, preferably stacked for a year before spreading, almost compost. Of a high fungal value, the opposite of say chicken manure (bacterial mostly).

Horse manure is at a small risk of contamination by aminopyralid weedkiller, occasionally sprayed on grass for horse-hay. Its the only weedkiller I know which persists, and its lethal to potatoes, tomatoes and legumes, whose growing tips become curled and twisted, see here and elsewhere on this site via the search bar.



74 thoughts on “Start no dig, soil types, weeds, composts to use

  1. Hi Charles,

    I hope this finds you well. First I’d like to say thanks for your YouTube channel and your ‘How to Create a new Vegetable Garden’ book. My two children (4 and 5) have had a great time with Square Foot gardening but after consuming lots of your information I now have the conidence to start a larger no-dig bed for us all to enjoy.

    My garden has artificial grass which I’ll be removing, and underneath is a 15cm or so layer of granite dust which has to go. Removing it from my garden will be troublesome as it is very heavy when bagged. Is it critical to remove this would you say, or can I get away with breaking it up/digging it into the soil below, before starting my no-dig bed on top?

    1. Thank you Gary.
      That is hard to say. It’s possible that plants will root through it, but growth may be better if you remove it, I really can’t be sure. Maybe try a small area to see if it’s worth doing.

  2. Hi Charles
    I’ve been looking at various spent mushroom compost suppliers locally. Four questions (sorry):

    1. They all seem to state that the compost is steam sterilised on farm before shipping, to prevent weeds, disease etc. Is this a problem for no dig beds? I imagine it kills all the good bacteria/micro-organisms?

    2. They all seem to include composted poultry manure as well as composted house manure, will this be too ‘strong’ for no dig beds?

    3. Do mushroom growers use chemical pesticides etc. that may be left in the compost, do I need to find a supplier that specifies ‘organic’?

    4. Is there a chance of aminopyralid contamination in spent mushroom compost, given the horse manure content, and how likely would that be?

    Thanks in advance


    1. Hi Sean
      1 yes they sterilise, and it’s in my view to prevent people getting free mushrooms! Compost still gives excellent results.
      2 I did not know about the poultry manure but it’s not a worry because that’s a myth about compost or manure being “too rich”.
      3 Some use chemicals and some use biological control methods, and very few mushroom growers use organic methods. You as a customer of their waste products cannot influence how they grow mushrooms, which commercially is a difficult process.
      4 Yes there is a chance of weedkiller contamination and again as customers of waste products, we have zero influence over this unfortunately, and there is a small risk.

  3. Charles, big fan.

    Used your methods (video and books) on our allotment and it worked fantastic. We finally have our own 0.1 acre 🤣space. We ordered 2 ton mushroom compost to get us started.

    Laid cardboard and despite the compost arriving hot we used 1 ton bag for 2 x 16ft beds. It felt weird turning it out still steaming so I checked the temp and it was around 60c. Assumed it would be okay but didn’t spread any more. The other bag has dropped down to 10/15c after 3 weeks.

    Just seen your problem solving video and you talked about hot mushroom not working well. Curious to see what you would do in this instance, will we be able to use these beds soon?

    We have 1 other bed which is mainly composted bark (recommended by the local nursery) and a layer of the same mushroom compost on top. Does composted bark work for you?

    P.S we have stayed in Bruton a few times and every time I get your salad leaves from the spar and enjoy them in the hotel room 🙂

    Thanks for all your wisdom.

    1. Hi Luke
      Good to hear, mostly!
      It’s certainly not ideal to fill beds with compost still hot, but it can work very well when the compost is no thicker than about 4 cm on top. It sounds like you may have put an 8 to 10 cm depth, depending how fluffy it is. This could be difficult for new plantings in the spring but should be fine for summer plantings.
      Regarding the composted bark, I don’t like the sound of using that in a bed and think it would be better as surface mulch. I suspect there is still wood decomposing which will take nitrogen, but hope I’m wrong. People in nurseries do not always understand these products and how they are best used for growing vegetables.

      1. Thanks for the clear response Charles.

        Some positive there. Let’s see how we do. I wonder if the bed with the composted bark could do with some peas not for a harvest but to help the nitrogen issue.

        Might give it a go, we have taken on your love for trialing things for comparison.

        Thanks again for what seems to be a common question.

  4. Thank you so much for your reply! Very helpful. One thing I am wondering, is if my seedlings are in blocks or pots that are deeper than the 1 inch of potting compost you suggest putting on top, would that also still affect the roots and the plants getting established? Just making sure I understand!

    1. Sorry didn’t mean to post this twice! Thank you so much for your help and wisdom! Im really grateful as I try to learn this to have experienced advice!

  5. Hello Charles,
    This is such helpful information. I am a small scale flower farmer in Northern Ireland and am switching to the no dig method. I have a source for mushroom compost, and am starting on a new plot of land that will need cardboard, most likely to kill weeds. The mushroom farmer told me he thought the compost might burn the roots and it might need to sit for a couple months. I was really hoping to start the no dig method in the next few weeks. I saw you mentioned mushroom compost is useable in a unripe state, but you prefer to wait. Would it be possible to do my layer of cardboard, and then 6 inches of mushroom compost and then plant seedlings into that, or would you advise to let the mushroom compost ripen up a couple months? I am also wondering about rushes (not sure if there is another name for them). They are present in my field and I am wondering if the cardboard is enough to kill them off or if they need to be dug up?

    1. Cheers Elizabeth, and rushes will grow through cardboard normally. It’s worth slicing through the top layer of their roots somehow, say with a sharp spade.

      It’s not ideal to use such fresh compost and that will compromise growth at first. A one inch top layer of potting compost helps plants establish at least.

      1. Thank you so much for your reply! Very helpful. One thing I am wondering, is if my seedlings are in blocks or pots that are deeper than the 1 inch of potting compost you suggest putting on top, would that also still affect the roots and the plants getting established? Just making sure I understand!

        1. Good point! It depends how fresh and hot that compost is and if steaming in the heat when you spread it, then for each planting of a larger pot I would scoop out the 3 inch saucer shaped hole for new plantings. Is extra work for sure but should help.

  6. Hi there,

    I have just been given a plot in an allotment site in Bristol. The soil is heavy clay. I would like to use a ‘no dig method’ and make some raised beds to grow vegetables.
    The plot has been covered under polythene for a year so and there are no weeds under. Would I need to lay carboard or I could go without it?
    I don’t have any compost so will be trying to buy some. Would you be able to recommend anything in particular considering the type of soil (heavy clay)?
    I am slightly confused about what I should be putting in beds – compost / manure / topping soil? Sorry I am new to this.

    Your advice would be highly appreciated!

    Thank You.

    1. Hi Egle
      You do not need to use any cardboard, as you are wondering. Any kind of compost is good for any soil, but finding a decent amount at short notice may be difficult.
      Best ask some allotment neighbours where they buy compost, and put the word in computer Search for your area. Since you have few weeds, you can grow this year with just 5 cm compost on top.
      It will be less easy than if you had 10cm, but definitely possible, and check out this page for more details

  7. I have taken on an allotment this year, and am using your methods to create my first no dig veg beds. The allotment is overrun with weeds and heavy clay so I am laying cardboard followed by compost. Having had 1.5 cubic meters of compost delivered I started shovelling it onto beds laid out with cardboard this afternoon. However, the compost is still hot. I don’t have a thermometer, but it really did feel very warm. Will I still be able to plant into it this season? I have lots of seedlings growing in pots! Many thanks for your wealth of teaching and advice.

    1. That is not ideal Heather. It will be good eventually but this year may not see fantastic growth.
      Maybe for say a quarter or third of your new beds, spread on top some potting compost, the cheapest you can find but it will at least be ready to grow seeds and plants. Maybe a 5 cm layer.

  8. I am planning to try your method this year. We have two established raised beds that have not been used in over a year. I am wondering if you can give me some advice as to what kind of compost to put down over the soil that is already in the boxes. I do not have the space to make my own so I will have to purchase it somewhere here in Southern California.
    Also, am I correct in planning to just lay down whatever compost I get and plant from there?
    Thank you! I am really looking forward to following your method.

    1. Nice to hear this Melissa, and you need the best compost you can find which is pure compost, in other words no soil. Or perhaps you would call it dirt.
      Use a rake to level the surface of your existing box contents, then simply spread the compost on top and yes you plant into it.
      Don’t be put off by so-called advice from compost sellers that you have to mix it with soil or dirt.

      1. Thank you so much for the help! I know it may be different here than where you are but can you suggest places I might find pure compost? I have tried the nurseries and big box stores and they do not seem to know what I am talking about. (Which seems a bit strange to me)
        Also, is there a specific kind or type that I should be looking for? I have watched your videos about green material compost, brown compost, mushroom compost, etc. I am just unsure of what to be looking for when trying to buy it instead of making my own.
        Thank you again!

        1. Hi Melissa, I have the same question as you. I’m wondering if you found an answer to how to know what kind of compost is good to buy? Thanks for any help!

  9. Hi Charles,
    First of all, thank you for supplying us with so much usefull information.
    I have been planning my first vegetable garden and want to use your no-dig method. I created paths from woodchips and created beds with 15cm of mushroom compost. I have read here that it should be fine if I leave it for two months. so I did not forsee any trouble, untill someone pointed out to me that because of the amount of nitrogen and salts in the compost im basically poisoning the surface and ground water by over-fertilizing. can you tell me more about that?

    1. I am disappointed Marjolein that you believe ‘someone’ more than me. And does it look like my beds are poisoned? My advice is evidence-based.
      I don’t like being brusque but for the benefit of others reading this, I urge all of you to reflect on and consider the sense of what other people say. There are a lot of quite unpleasant people out there who will say anything they feel like and pretend it’s true. It makes them feel good because then they can feel they know more than you do. I would say in this case, that is clearly not the case. But they have sensed a little uncertainty in you.
      Their statement is clearly not true, and maybe they work for a fertiliser company!

      1. Thank you for your comment. You are correct in stating that he overwhealmed me. I am just a beginner and all the knowledge I have is from reading and asking. This particular person came to me with numbers and calculations and government guidelines (im from the Netherlands). The uncertainty I do have is mainly because I want to do everything so right and sometimes its hard to see what that actually means. And you may be right that he works for a fertiliser company.. his profile said manure transporter

  10. Hi Charles, I’m keen to experiment with no dig. I have one border completely full of wild onion (bulb) and wondered if you think a no dig approach would work with this type of weed? I have read the bulbs can lay dormant for years beneath the soil. Do you have any advice or ideas?

    1. Yes they can be a difficult weed but it’s the same approach and results in the end, just the onions will grow strongly from now until July.
      Now is therefore thee best time to cover them with cardboard et cetera, and keep pulling or levering out all regrowth you see, which may seem daunting at first then if you are thorough, they should have disappeared by late summer

  11. Good day Charles!
    I am looking for a good quality compost for the community garden plot, and most of the “class A” compost is woodwaste. It is screened but still contains chunks of wood. This kind of compost would be better for putting down in Fall and wouldn’t do well for planting this Spring right? What about mixing it with worm castings of some commercial compost? What kind of consistancy should I be looking for in the compost so it will be ready to plant in right away?
    Thank you so much!!! Hugs from Kelowna, BC .

    1. Thanks, should be fine Chandra. Compost is not fertiliser, its food for soil life and that helps to release nutrients already present in the soil.
      Wood based compost is excellent because it is high in fungi. If it contains a lot of undecomposed wood, best use as surface mulch only rather than filling a whole bed with it.

  12. Hi Charles,

    Thanks so much for all the invaluable information that you share. I’ve just bought your latest book, and it’s great so far. I’m converting part of my lawn to beds. Cardboard is down and I’ve laid about an inch of homemade compost. To top it off, I bought a very large amount of ‘fine’ horse manure. I was unaware that it would also contain woodchip, so it’s actually quite chunky. I am planning to make one of the beds into a polyculture bed which will be a mix of module grown plants and direct sown flower and carrot seeds. I feel like the manure/woodchip mix will not be fine enough to sow directly into. So I’m wondering whether to lay another inch of this manure and then either sieve a finer layer on the top surface (a lot of extra work), or buy another finer compost to lay on top. Would this be a good idea? Or is it best not to use it in this bed? Apparently the manure has been matured for 18 months. Would the wood chip still be ‘robbing nitrogen’ after this amount or time or it is safe to use under the surface? As I now have a lot more than I need, I was thinking I could add it into the planting hole when I plant my tomatoes and courgettes.



    1. Nice to hear Stephanie.
      If the manure is 18 months old that suggests that much of the wood will have decomposed, but it is kiln dried wood and that takes longer to break down and than green wood chip. I would not add any more of it and would just leave it stacked for another year, or spread it on your paths on top of cardboard. Don’t put it in planting holes! You don’t want wood close to roots. So yes I would buy a little fine compost as top layer for your beds.

      1. Oh I’m so glad I asked. I wish they’d told me that it’s combined with woodchip that’s not fully decomposed, before I bought 800 litres of it! They even advised me to dig it in the bed (I didn’t bother explaining to them that I’m not digging) which is very odd, considering that wood should never be dug in. I feel inclined to contact them to ask if they can exchange it for something more suitable. On the website it literally says ‘Fine Horse Manure’ with no mention of wood chip. They advised me that this would be best for sowing direct. This is my first time ordering it, so will make sure I ask in future!

        1. Yes this is poor advice, and sadly it is totally typical of what many suppliers say. They are not gardeners and do not understand the product. To say that it could or should be dug in is truly awful, feel free to quote me. Probably they would say that no dig is not a good idea!

          1. Yes I did feel like quoting you! Ah well, lesson learned- don’t always trust the advice of the suppliers. Thanks so much for your responses!

  13. Hi Charles!

    Thank you so much for all the information you have put out there. My allotment finally came through this week and I’m currently working like a madman trying to get the beds ready for Spring!

    I’ve got myself in a right old muddle about what to use for compost, though! I’m going to have 25cm raised beds and want to use your no-dig method. Do you think a 2″ layer of leaf mulch, then 9″ or so of a 50/50 mix of spent mushroom compost and normal garden centre multipurpose compost would be OK?

    Sorry for the ridiculous question!

    1. Hello Simon, that sounds like good work. I am not convinced you need beds of 25 cm depth partly because there is a lot of compost. It’s a bit the law of diminishing returns. Beyond say 15 cm.
      Any combination is possible it’s best not to get too precise about it and generally when people sell mixes that makes it more expensive! Mushroom compost is very good for example

      1. I was going to buy some mushroom compost from Earthcycle to give me 6” mulch, but the supplier says it’s not suitable to plant directly into. Is there anything I need to do so that I can plant and sow into it?

        1. Hi Val, and it’s funny how they say that!
          Probably they are selling it fresh, so at this point plants may not thrive. You could spread 3cm multipurpose compost on top to alleviate that, but won’t be planting for a while, so fine to spread now.

  14. Good morning Charles,

    I recently started on an allotment with very heavy clay soil and poor drainage in some places. I wanted to start no dig so I removed brambles and dandelions and then mulched with cardboard and then 4-6 inches of light bought compost as this is all I could get my hands on. It is made from soil, leaf mould and added trace elements. Is this suitable or is it a too ‘manufactured’ product? I think it may normally be designed for containers etc. Thank you,


    1. Hi Jesse, this sounds possible if not perfect.
      It’s a pity that they put soil in such mixes because in my view it brings almost nothing at all, especially compared to compost.
      But it will get you going, and your soil will keep improving with new compost on top each year.

      1. Appreciate your quick response Charles! As a minimum I hope it will suppress weeds and give a decent surface for me to plant into. I hope there is enough nutritional value in there to keep things going until next autumn. It is strange when things are marketed as compost but have no composted material in it.

        Thanks again


  15. Hi Charles, I am so inspired by you and the no dig method! I have recently taken on a plot of land to grow vegetables. The plot has been overgrown for many years and is covered with brambles and ivy. I have been digging up the main root balls of the brambles and pulling the ivy up and the soil is looking pretty good. A few other weeds are starting to pop up now they can see daylight! I was planning on putting cardboard down and then a mix of mushroom compost and green waste compost on top (and perhaps a small amount of compost from our duck manure and bedding). Does that sound ok? I am trying to calculate how much compost to buy, and wondered if a depth of 3 inches would be sufficient, or if it’s worth putting up to 6 inches down?

    1. Hi Fiona, and that sounds an excellent start. I reckon that with thick cardboard well overlapped, you could manage with 3 inches.
      The only weeds that might grow through that would be say vigourous clumps of grass for example. With a lawn for example, you can sometimes succeed with as little as 2 inches compost.

      Yes the duck bedding sounds fantastic to use!

  16. Hi Charles. I just ordered some mushroom compost to make some new beds as per your excellent instructions. Unfortunately I have now realised that almost all mushroom compost contains a fair amount of peat and so really isn’t suitable if we are trying to garden sustainably. Given your reservations about horse manure, would you say that old cow manure (as you yourself used in these pictures) is the best option? Sadly it seems less easily available.

    1. Yes Paul if has some peat, but us buying it does not result in more peat being mined, because it’s used to grow mushrooms whether we buy it or not. Our custom (or not) may alter the price.
      Cow manure is less available, can even contain pyralid now, used not to.

  17. Hi Charles, your channel is the go to place for me, and I appreciate your efforts. I have a small area for veg, and declining body parts dictate raised beds for me. So far, I have applied your no dig technique, without the cardboard, to the top 6-8 inches of these beds with good success. I am now creating two 16 inch beds and have used the bottom reed/mud mixture from my neighbours pond (he has agreed) to half fill the beds. I will cardboard the top half as per your starter video. There is a plethora of peat free organic compost such as you use for the top layer. Can you please recommend one, or if not possible give a bit more detail of the spec. KInds regards, Chris

    1. Hi Chris, a good project.
      No need for cardboard, which is only against existing weeds.
      I can’t recommend composts because they vary so much, even month to month. Sorry.

  18. Hi Charles, I’ve really enjoyed watching your YouTube videos and am really keen on using the no-dig method. I’m new to the allotment world and starting with a 3 pole plot. The site has been cut back of weeds – well cut to the ground. Evidence of dandelion, bramble and couch grass. My question is do I just place organic matter 1 – 2 inches on top followed by cardboard mulch and cover with landscape fabric? Do I need to remove anymore of the bramble/weeds? Do I then leave it until Feb/March for sowing /planting the new season veg & fruit. Are there any winter veg I can plant through the mulch during this time?

    1. Sounds fun.
      Brambles’ main stems want levering out – not all the roots.
      Card on top of remaining weeds then compost.
      Not much sowing time left, say spring onions and salads this week

  19. Hi Charles,

    How are you? I was able to attend one of your courses in Feb before Covid! I thought you might help me to prevent my divorce! The other day some tree surgeon were clearing some branches in my neighbour’s garden. I remember you saying “wood chips, not bark” and asked them to give me the chips. As it happens, they can only offload the whole truck, not half of it and now I have literally a ton of wood chip in my front drive. I only have a small kitchen garden at the back of the house and have mulched all the paths with probably like 5/10 cm of what I now know you call ramiel. I still have loads of this fresh wood chips and my partner is about to evict me and the ramiel from the house. Shall I put them on the side next to my compost bin and let them decompose? Shall I get horse manure from nearby field to speed up the process? I’m literally covered in wood chips and don’t know where to put it. I think I got more than I bargained for and apparently it will take years to decompose. I’ve been reading loads and apparently I can’t put them on the actual beds or I will deplete vegetables from nitrogen. Shall I pay for someone to take the chips back? Cheers, sorry to bother you. I’ve read and read and couldn’t think of another trusted brain to pick!

    1. Hi Bea
      Funny message! They will decompose within 18 months to something quite nice, esp if watered now and kept moist.
      Worth hanging onto if you have space. Pile in a neat heap back-of-garden? Under a tree?
      On beds they don’t deplete much N when on top. Problem is more accumulation of woodlice and slugs, difficulties of sow & plant.
      May it all work out for you 🙂

  20. Hi Charles,
    I’ve meet you in Youtube at the beggining of the pandemic and I’m already a big fan!
    I’m starting a no dig garden and I would like your thoughts regarding using compost chicken manure for beds and wood shavings for pathways, please. I have tons of well rotten chicken manure! Also I have a good source of wood shavings. What do you suggest doing with those materials for start a no dig garden? I’m using a landscape fabric to reduce the weeds and I’m saving cardboards to prepare the garden as well. I live in the south of Brazil – Humid Subtropical region – and hope to test no dig method here.
    Thank you!

    1. Hello Elvio
      Well done, sounds good.
      if the manure is pure poo with no bedding like straw, us no more than 2-3cm over the cardboard. Try a small area with more, to see how it grows.
      Cardboard is needed only if many weeds.
      Perhaps look at making compost for use next year, from wood shavings and manure.
      Hope it goes well.

  21. Hi Charles,
    I have a question about the mushroom compost. Can I use it directly after it’s being used for growing mushroom or it needs curing times. If yes, how much time?
    Also, can I just use it as the soil substrate to grow in containers? or I need to mix it with other material.
    Thank you

    1. Hello Amani, yes it’s best aged.
      Depends a little how fresh it is when delivered: often you can see bits of straw, peat, and white mushroom stalks. From there best wait 2-3 months. After that it can be used in a pot, without soil added.

  22. Hi Charles,
    I love watching your YouTube videos and have leant so much!
    I’ve just ordered a polytunnel and want to start using it straightaway but part of where it will go is lawn. I’m planning to cover the lawn with thick cardboard and then put 10-15cm of mushroom compost on top and plant straight into it – tomatoes, aubergine, peppers etc. Will this be sufficient to ensure the grass doesn’t start coming up through the beds?
    Many thanks

  23. Hi Charles,

    I was wondering if this would be a successful approach to use on an area of garden that has become overrun with Crocrosmia and Lysimachia?

    Many thanks.

  24. Hi Charles,

    This is my first year of no going no dig.

    I have had mushroom compost delivered for the first time this spring and have created several beds for potatoes and Alderman peas. The compost is well rotted but some straw is visible – none of my potatoes have come up after 3 weeks and my peas really seem to struggle to grow. The diggers on my plot all have strong foliage emerging already. Also my onions and beetroot (multisown and planted out as clumps) in the compost struggle but the ones in my raised bed of multipurpose compost are thriving. Really gutting considering the effort and money put in.

    Having watched your video about growth problems I am concerned this might be weed killer damage…how would I test for this please? Is there anything that can be grown after a while if it is indeed aminopyralid contaminated compost?

    Many thanks,

    1. Oh dear this sounds like either the compost was super fresh, maybe hot in the heap at time of spreading? I do advise bout this but it’s hard to be too discouraging or nobody then does anything and most people are getting on alright, perhaps a little slow at first.
      Best of course is to set up autumn before but Covid made that not possible.
      It it’s aminopyralid, peas would show deformed new leaves. I hope not. Hang in there.

  25. Thank you! Your content is so helpful and generous.
    RE- BRAMBLES , 1/8 of my new allotment was covered in them. I’ve carefully cleared them all, digging out the crown. Is it ok to cut them up with secateurs and then put them in the compost heap? I want to make compost as we clear but I’m worried these might be too thick and the thorns would stay sharp. Thanks again for your clear guidance, I’m new to gardening and very excited to create a no-dig allotment 🙂

    1. Hi Sara, thanks for your encouraging feedback and well done so far.
      The brambles will decompose but may take two years! Still a good mulch, perhaps a thorn or two. Shredding or mowing them is ideal but great you are cutting by hand 🙂

  26. Hello! Thanks for all the information. I have the cardboard down and am having compost delivered. Seeing as how the compost probably isn’t very high quality (I’m fairly sure it’s mostly green waste), should I do a 50/50 mix of garden soil and compost to make my new beds?

    I also am wondering if I need to put holes in the cardboard under the plantings. I’ll be doing 6″ of compost or a compost and soil mix on top of thick cardboard.

    Hopefully by this fall we’ll have plenty of our own compost to use. I can’t wait to get everything going. Thanks so much!

    1. All sounds fine Sarah and no need for holes in cardboard, roots will go though.
      Even if the compost is not the best, it’s better than soil, which also will be not the best 🙂
      Happy harvests, before too long.

  27. Is it ok to plant into “finished” (no longer hot) mushroom compost or only use as mulch? I’m being told by a supplier that the one here is so N rich it will burn my plants unless mixed into my soil. I don’t want to do that, but it’s very affordable and I want to use it for quick start option 2 for a first time flower bed turned veg garden. I plan in 1-2 weeks to lay thick soaked in water cardboard due to bugleweed groundcover (unless that is not a competitive plant for nutrients?) followed by 4 inches total compost so I can plant by the last frost date 4/20. My base soil is damp clay. Good plan? Less compost to start possible? I plant directly into any finished compost without plant harm? Lastly, thoughts on a 2 yr old zoo brew compost for mulch?
    Forgive my peppering with questions! I’m so eager and trying to be frugal as well. I found your method a month ago and am trying to learn as much as I can. I appreciate all the wealth of knowledge you share so freely!

    1. Hi and thanks Charlene.
      I never saw or experienced the famous root-burn so often alluded to, and find that plants root happily into finished mushroom (and all other) compost.
      Zoo poo is probably good, no experience of it.
      Your plan looks good. If the weather or ground are wet, no need to soak the cardboard.

  28. can you please recommend a good garden shredder/chipper? We have a lot of garden waste quite woody

    Thank you

    1. Hi Sharon,
      I am pleased with my Bosch AXT 25 TC, electric and max. diameter 45mm. It’s for woody material, not so good for stems like broad beans. Gives a good material for making compost.

      1. Hi Charles,

        I have found I can get green waste compost that meets the PAS 100 standard at a very reasonable price. At 10mm screened it’s £10 a tonne but at 20mm screened it’s only £1 per tonne.

        I understand it should probably sit for a bit before using but do you think the 20mm screened would be suitable for starting no dig beds for a cut flower garden?



        1. Nice work Alex but the 20 mm will probably come with a fair amount of plastic! Not to mention the pieces of wood and bits of gravel perhaps, so I think the 10 mm is worth it. Good luck with your new garden 🌺

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